Yin Cheong Wong, Trayana Ilkova, Rob C van Wijk, Robin Hartman, and Elizabeth C M de Lange (2017).
European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences, 111, 514-525.   (PubMed)

Raclopride is a selective antagonist of the dopamine D2 receptor. It is one of the most frequently used in vivo D2 tracers (at low doses) for assessing drug-induced receptor occupancy (RO) in animals and humans. It is also commonly used as a pharmacological blocker (at high doses) to occupy the available D2 receptors and antagonize the action of dopamine or drugs on D2 in preclinical studies. The aims of this study were to comprehensively evaluate its pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in different brain compartments and to establish a PK-RO model that could predict the brain distribution and RO of raclopride in the freely moving rat using a LC-MS based approach.


This work describes an example of using ODE modelling in kinetic calculations.