The ability to predict accurate thermodynamic and kinetic properties in biomolecular systems is of both scientific and practical utility. While both remain very difficult, predictions of kinetics are particularly difficult because rates, in contrast to free energies, depend on the route taken. For this reason, specific enhanced sampling methods are needed to calculate long-time scale kinetics. It has recently been demonstrated that it is possible to recover kinetics through the so-called “infrequent metadynamics” simulations, where the simulations are biased in a way that minimally corrupts the dynamics of moving between metastable states. This method, however, requires the bias to be added slowly, thus hampering applications to processes with only modest separations of time scales. Here we present a frequency-adaptive strategy which bridges normal and infrequent metadynamics. We show that this strategy can improve the precision and accuracy of rate calculations at fixed computational cost and should be able to extend rate calculations for much slower kinetic processes.
This work describes an example of using Metadynamics in kinetic calculations.