J Schlitter, M Engels, and P Krüger (1994).
Journal of molecular graphics, 12, 84-9.   (PubMed)

Molecular dynamics simulations have proven to be a valuable tool to investigate the dynamic behavior of stable macromolecules at finite temperatures. However, considerable conformational transitions take place during a simulation only accidentally or at exceptionally high temperatures far from the range of experimental conditions. Targeted molecular dynamics (TMD) is a method to induce a conformational change to a known target structure at ordinary temperature by applying a time-dependent, purely geometrical constraint. The transition is enforced independently of the height of energy barriers, while the dynamics of the molecule is only minimally influenced by the constraint. Simulations of decaalanine and insulin show the ability of the method to explore the configurational space for pathways accessible at a given temperature. The transitions studied at insulin comprise unfolding of an alpha-helical portion and, in the reverse direction, refolding from an extended conformation. A possible application of TMD is the search for energy barriers and stable intermediates from rather local changes up to protein denaturation.

This work describes an example of using Targeted molecular dynamics in kinetic calculations.